Raanan Gillon campaigned successfully for fairness to be added to the World Medical Association’s International code of medical ethics (with respect to both patients and professionals).
It therefore joins beneficence, non-maleficence and respect for autonomy as one of the cardinal principles (Beauchamp and Childress).
What fairness means is debatable, however. And these different principles can conflict.
But it still has value as a way of analysing ethical problems. Hopefully in advance of the problem becoming real for someone.
Aristotle’s theory of justice or fairness is a good place to start – “equals should be treated equally” is straightforward, but it also includes “unequals should be treated unequally, in proportion to their inequalities). In other words, some people may need to be treated differently (“unequally”) because they need the treatment more.