Set expectations – that most learning happens during daily patient care as part of the team.
Modelling – think aloud, to externalize reasoning (in short spells!)
1-2 minutes direct observation. Feedback perhaps after a number of episodes – one thing done well, one thing that could be done differently?
Send student ahead (“scouting“).
Self- explanation – without any instructions, student finds own explanations for results, obs, management plan etc.
SNAPPS – summarize case, narrow differential, analyse differential, probe [ask questions] where uncertain, plan, select an issue related to case for self directed learning. 1-2 mins only.
Tell me story backwards – Diagnosis, then supporting evidence, then why other diagnoses excluded. Only then plan.
Contrastive example – ask student to give alternative diagnosis and balance probabilities.
Post it Pearls – record thoughts (not just pearls!) during clinic/ward round, review at end.
Diagnostic challenge – one person/team defends working diagnosis. Other asks about worse case scenario, or alternative diagnosis, investigations done or not done, and checks with patient themselves!
[Operation Colleague, from University of Glasgow; HPE Bytes]