Incidence increasing, approaching that of adults!? INSPPIRE international study.
Amylase 3x upper limit, radiology positive.
Cullen’s and Grey Turner signs (umbilical and flank bruising respectively).
Amylase level not prognostic. False positive liver/renal impairment, GI inflammation. False negative in 10%, esp drug induced!
Lipase more specific, only done in Huddersfield?! Stays high for longer.
Low calcium, high glucose seen.
Diagnosis mostly clinical. USS usually sensitive, else CT – more for complications (focal or diffuse enlargement, heterogeneous enhancement, irregular or shaggy outline, oedema of surrounding fat).
AXR may show sentinel loop, free gas (loss of psoas shadow). CXR for effusion.
I GET SMASHED
- idiopathic (25% in children)
- gall stones
- steroids – and other drugs, esp anti-epileptics, immunosuppressants eg azathioprine, cancer drugs.
- mumps (even without parotitis), malignancy
- scorpion sting!
Prognosis good in children. Scoring systems in adults eg Modified Glasgow-Imrie not applicable, various paediatric versions, of debatable value.
Fluid resuscitation then 1.5-2x maintenance requirements (not much evidence – don’t be afraid of positive balance! Keep urine output at 1ml/kg/hr), analgesia, early enteral nutrition if possible (to avoid bacterial translocation) else parenteral.
Antibiotics only for suspected sepsis.
Surgery eg necrosectomy.
1/3 acute recurrent (defined as recurrence after full recovery). Often anatomical problems. Chronic associated with genetic disorders, metabolic, autoimmune.
ERCP for anatomical causes. Pancreatic enzymes. Non opiate pain management eg tricyclics.[NASPGHAN 2018 Guidelines]