The Uvea is the term for the whole eye (uvea=peeled grape). Whereas conjunctivitis looks like a red eye, it’s only really the surface that is inflamed. With uveitis, all the different tissues of the eye are inflamed. Acutely, might not look that different to conjunctivitis but painful, whereas latter usually just itchy. Anterior chamber starts to fill up with inflammatory cells so vision starts to deteriorate. An irregular pupil due to synechiae can eventually be seen, with hypopyon. Cataracts and scarring can follow.
Chronic on the other hand can be subclinical but potential for visual loss so screening important in associated conditions.
Usually idiopathic, otherwise:
- Juvenile idiopathic arthritis – about 10% of patients with non-oligoarthritis, and 30% of ANA positive oligo so pretty common
- HLA-B27 – with or without other B27 conditions such as Ankylosing spondylitis
- Behcet’s disease (so do HLA B51)
- Crohns disease and other IBD
- Granulomatosis with polyangitis (ex-Wegeners)
- Sarcoidosis (so do chitotriosidase)
- Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome
Some infections can cause it: